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  1. 6 points
    You got it upside down. The province owned 30%. Saleen and Wong own 70%. In the US there is fiduciary duty to the minority interest. It is often litigated when it is ignored by the majority shareholder. When you want to fleece someone you don't buy the equity, you buy the secured debt and call it. You buy equity for fleecing purposes only when it sells for well below book.
  2. 5 points
    Right....let’s see how the global business community sees this takeover and how it affects future investment in China.
  3. 5 points
    China has now dropped all pretense of being a reasonable global ‘good neighbor’. It is almost as if they are doing everything that they can to isolate themselves again.
  4. 4 points
    More insight as to how China goes about their business, and how the U.S. and certainly the rest of the world are still not set up to combat their practices. The following article was written in 2018, but is still relevant today. How China acquires ‘the crown jewels’ of US technology -Excerpt- National security specialists insist that such a stealth transfer of technology through China’s investment practices in the United States is a far more serious problem than the tariff dispute — and a problem hiding in plain sight. A recent Pentagon report bluntly declared: “The U.S. does not have a comprehensive policy or the tools to address this massive technology transfer to China.” It went on to warn that Beijing’s acquisition of top-notch American technology is enabling a “strategic competitor to access the crown jewels of U.S. innovation.” Some congressional leaders concur. Senate Majority Whip John Cornyn (R-Texas) regularly warns his colleagues that China is using private-sector investments to pilfer American technology. China has “weaponized” its investments in America “in order to vacuum up U.S. industrial capabilities from American companies,” Cornyn said at a January hearing. The goal, he added, is “to turn our own technology and know-how against us in an effort to erase our national security advantage.”
  5. 4 points
    So you are proud of your CCP sponsors for their biowarfare against the world at large. Your quotes of the colonial apologist reflect the racist genocidal psychopaths that make up the CCP leadership. They are the modern day's Nazis, good that you understand that is what they are. So why are you on their side?
  6. 4 points
    Drop the excuses. China is just thieving its way to another trillion dollars worth of other people's R&D. In this instance having the provincial government itself act criminally. It is theft since he sold his rights to the IP under the conditionality of the contract. They took the IP and patented it in their own name. That is outright criminal theft and fraud, and it was conducted by govt. There is no possible favorable view of these Chinese official sector actions. They are just outright plain criminal. I am disappointed at your reflexive defense of the Chinese position and the obviously fake claims. You know better. Yes, Saleen as is the case with many other US businesses including Tesla was stupid to make a deal with China with an expectation of anything other than being fleeced and all his legal protections evaporating. As pointed out elsewhere in a China thread, they are preparing for total isolation and taking whatever tech they can put their hands on before they unplug from the world.
  7. 4 points
    Brand and trademarks are different than patents and irrelevant to the theft. I believe you are aware of this and surprised you would try to argue such an obviously spurious position. We are talking counterfeit goods versus theft of intellectual property. waltz
  8. 4 points
    They never have been anything more than a questionable society...and that is being kind beyond human understanding....Actually below is another one Obama's world agenda Nobels Peace prizes... https://qz.com/594984/the-secret-history-of-gms-chinese-bailout/ https://www.cnbc.com/2019/02/28/1-in-5-companies-say-china-stole-their-ip-within-the-last-year-cnbc.html
  9. 4 points
    Back in 2000, I was all gung ho about China's development and monetary affairs. Their system looked in terrific shape going forward after the 1994-6 financial restructuring. Demographics were great and didn't turn over till 2010. Even then, savings could finance parallel investment and consumption. Only in 2020 did things have to slow down and only in 2025 did they have to turn pear shaped because of the demographics. But somehow, they managed to trash their economy the moment Xi took power. After an enormous credit injection during the GFC they flattened out and suddenly GDP fell back relative to credit, with credit efficiency dropping like a stone so that delta debt produced a much smaller and now insignificant change in GDP. Then their industrial numbers stopped correlating to GDP numbers and even their own economists were pointing out the discrepancies and downscaling the estimated "real" numbers. Then data about their enormous credit impulses in the bank sector and grey market shadow financing came out showing enormous debt overhang that dwarfs the rest of the world. Then their reserves started leaking out and the grand opening of the capital market was a gigantic rush of escaping capital. .They shut it down but money kept finding its way out. Exports became merely a method for escaping capital. Total factor productivity sank into negative territory in 2013 and kept getting worse, then in recent 2 years, with corrected GDP numbers, it was -5%. That was the scale of collapse in Greece and Russia. Their banking system was supposed to make money on industrial investment to supply retirees with cash withdrawals in the 2020s and onwards. But the deranged SOE investments and provincial SIV funded projects are not producing income so that makes the fund flows of the banks look like a Ponzi scheme with savers funding the losses from failed investments. In 2025 the outgoing flows to retirees would surpass the incoming flows from savers. Thus banks would no longer be capable of funding investment and no way to produce a return of capital to savers, not to speak of interest income. The PBOC would have to intervene with major monetary injections in increasing proportion to GDP. on the order of what the US is doing now temporarily, just on a permanent and increasing basis. Xi and company made an impending problem into a massive disaster looming overhead. I can't have a positive outcome at this point. It is just too late. So I suspect that China is sealing itself off as tightly as it can. It is only open to suck up more stolen technology from Tesla and other companies and others like Taiwan. There is much more to be pillaged before China shut down contact with the outside world into a narrow tightly controlled flow.. Example https://arstechnica.com/information-technology/2020/08/chinese-hackers-have-pillaged-taiwans-semiconductor-industry/
  10. 3 points
    I have written rather extensively about how China forces IP transfer, or outright steals it, from its foreign "partners". In this case, a government of China forced an illegal takeover of the entire company, 2/3 of which was setup as foreign ownership (which should have been seen as the 1st trap since 49% foreign ownership is the "norm"). A second point that this case illustrates is that the foreign partners are not some unsophisticated rubes. One is the legendary car and engine designer STEVE SALEEN and the other is his company's Chairman and CEO and an international lawyer, Charles Wang. This story seems surreal or even impossible, and Steve admits as much at the end of this article, but it is actually more common than you could ever imagine. Moves such as those highlighted in this case are beyond most people's or company's wildest nightmares. Normally if such a scenario were posed to the foreign partners as a risk would be met with a response of "No way! THAT could never happen, China wouldn't allow it." But they did allow it to happen and Steve and Charles may find their investment of time, money and name are lost forever. Now the foreign partners face a legal battle which, even if they can "win" in some international court, will most likely only serve to bankrupt the foreign partners under the burden of an international legal battle against a Chinese government entity or, even more likely, will be dropped as a lost cause before it ever gets started, which is what Steve also alludes to at the end of this article. Buyer beware (or in this case "partner beware"). China wields coronavirus to nationalize American-owned carmaker China enticed an American entrepreneur with the opportunity of helping build a cutting-edge automobile company in the world’s largest car market, then used the uncertainty cast by COVID-19 to steal his intellectual property, the businessman says. Steve Saleen, founder of specialty high-performance sports car manufacturer Saleen Automotive, and his partner Charles Wang, a Chinese immigrant and former attorney at a New York law firm, were approached in late 2015 about forming a joint venture with the city of Rugao to manufacture automobiles. The deal “offered, I thought, from my standpoint, a great opportunity to help build a global company,” Saleen told FOX Business. The agreement that was reached called for Saleen to contribute his brand and trademarks, designs for three engineered vehicles and experience, know-how and technology in manufacturing automobiles, he said. Those contributions were valued at $800 million. Wang, who helped structure the deal, would serve as the company’s chief executive officer. For their efforts, Saleen, Wang and their partners would receive two-thirds ownership of the newly formed company called Jiangsu Saleen Automotive Technologies. The city of Rugao’s government, which owned the remaining third, was responsible for providing $500 million of capital and $600 million in subsidized loans over three years to fund the operations and build a manufacturing facility. Rugao, located on China’s Eastern seaboard in Jiangsu province, is about 125 miles north of Shanghai. “It sounded like a great deal to us, so we went along with them,” Wang said, adding that his experience enabled him to set up the company’s corporate governance and articles of incorporation in accordance with Chinese law. By early 2020, everything was going according to plan. The initial product, an SUV, was in certification and the employee headcount had swelled from three to nearly 1,000. The factory, armed with 470 state-of-the-art robots, was ready for production. Then the COVID-19 pandemic struck. With both Saleen and Wang stuck in the U.S. as flights to China were grounded, the Rugao government seized on an opportunity to “nationalize the company,” according to Saleen. On June 29, the city sent six police cars with sirens blaring and vans full of private security forces to raid Jiangsu Saleen’s manufacturing facility and offices. The forces ordered employees to leave and shut off the water and electricity when some refused to do so. Executives, who were Chinese nationals were forced to resign or face consequences from Rugao's government, Saleen told FOX Business. The remaining employees were terminated. Two employees, Frank Sterzer, a German national who was vice president of manufacturing, and Grace Yin Xu, a Chinese national in charge of corporate affairs, were detained. While Sterzer was released after six hours when he contacted the German Embassy with a cellphone that wasn’t confiscated, Yin Xu was held for a month after she refused to corroborate the local government’s claims that Wang tried to embezzle money. Rugao authorities also claimed Saleen’s technology was worthless and false information was given to secure a higher valuation, he told FOX Business. Without Saleen’s knowledge, officials had previously filed 510 patents for the intellectual properties he developed – 120 of which were already awarded, including his signature supercharger. Many of the filings didn’t even list Saleen as the inventor. The shareholder who represented the city’s one-third stake held an illegal board meeting and removed Saleen and Wang as directors of the firm, leaving the foreign shareholders without representation, he said. Under Chinese corporate law, a board meeting cannot be held without a quorum of 51 percent of shareholders. The Rugao government didn’t comment when reached by FOX Business. Efforts to obtain comment from China’s Ministry of Foreign Affairs, located in Beijing, were unsuccessful, and a spokesperson from the U.S. Commerce Department didn't respond to a request from FOX Business. While chances are slim for a resolution on the mainland, Saleen and Wang have an avenue for arbitration in Hong Kong. Their attorney in the special administrative region said there is a good chance they will win the case, but whether it will be enforceable is “a huge question mark,” according to Wang. The irony is that as Saleen's company was being taken over, the U.S. and China were putting the finishing touches on a phase one trade deal for which President Trump had been pushing since taking office. The initial agreement included promises from Beijing to halt intellectual property theft, and a second phase -- now in limbo as tensions between the two countries mount -- was supposed to hone in on those commitments. Should it come about despite Trump's criticism of China's handling of COVID-19, a highly contagious disease first observed in the country late last year, and its crackdown on civil liberties in Hong Kong, Saleen has some ideas of what it should include. He says Chinese firms that infringe on intellectual property should be blocked from U.S. capital markets, asset valuations by Chinese companies that operate in the U.S. should be prohibited and that entities and individuals should be held accountable for any intellectual property infringement with both civil and criminal liability. He also believes Chinese cars should be blocked from the U.S. market unless they are part of a joint venture with an American company. Saleen, who worries it is “too late” for him and his partners, thinks his experience serves as a warning for anyone who is thinking about doing business in China. “If it can happen to me, it can literally happen to anyone,” Saleen said. "If this wasn't happening in real-time, you would think that it was actually a Hollywood movie."
  11. 3 points
    And, of course, only those damn white people were involved in this nefarious behavior during the time period you are speaking of. The world, and warfare, were much different 400+ years ago, and what you are alluding to must be seen within that context. Putting your superior morality and present day cultural values to conflicts or situations four centuries ago is simply trying to create a false narrative. Perhaps we should just ‘cancel’ that bit of history...🤔
  12. 3 points
    I envy your trip to Jasper. I hope it has been great. Covid fear prevented my planned trip. Hopefully we will make it next year. Sorry you have T.D.S. but I suffered through eight years of Obama and company and four years of his Deep State leftovers.
  13. 3 points
    Only if you signed away that right upon accepting employment AND if the company actually paid for the R&D.
  14. 2 points
    I disagree with the total isolation idea. I think they will gather as many allies as they can around the world, just as we will. Their allies will be weaker nations who want their help. They already have Russia, North Korea, Iran, Cuba, Venezuela, and possibly several others leaning in their direction. They are very expert at buying off leaders in each country including ours. Biden is a prime example. https://www.thedailybeast.com/meet-the-us-officials-who-now-lobby-for-china https://thefederalist.com/2018/08/03/sen-dianne-feinsteins-personal-driver-20-years-chinese-spy/ https://www.nbcnews.com/politics/elections/top-u-s-intel-official-china-wants-trump-defeated-russia-n1236195
  15. 2 points
    This weekends trip wasn't great; a big thunderstorm with painful hail hit us on our bicycle ride and the hotel hot tub was not open due to covid. The tub would have felt so good after the cold, hard bike ride. Of course, an hour later it was sunny and warm, so we just had hot showers and hit a bar patio. A "bad" weekend in the mountains is better than one at home.
  16. 2 points
    It is a badly misunderstood area of medicine, for example in older men lack of T actually creates frustration and rage. There are so many nuances to this topic it almost defies imagination. Stallone was more than probably on a combo from hell. Modern medicine is now finally cutting thru the political BS and discovering the exact opposite to the cardiac effects. Is it the end all to be all of course not that i will give you....but it does fall in the same vein and T-cell therapy..and when t-cell therapy is finally introduced it will change many many things..It is not a stretch to say chemo and radiation therapy will soon be termed barbaric caveman techniques.
  17. 2 points
    Reading tea leaves and goat’s intestines is just as accurate, apparently.
  18. 2 points
    ....you mean like the identically media hyped loss last time? Get ready for ‘Trump, the Sequel!’ 😂
  19. 2 points
  20. 2 points
  21. 2 points
    And he was praised.....and we wonder how the US came to this place. Our press corps have been bought and paid for by the world community...https://www.politifact.com/article/2012/sep/06/did-obama-save-us-automobile-industry/
  22. 2 points
    Incredible. I had not read about that before. Thanks for sharing the article.
  23. 2 points
    What your saying is carbon tax and it's a load of crap. My fuel used to get to and from work doesnt change with a tax. My home heat needs in winter doesnt change with a tax . So making people poor by imposing a tax so high as to change their spending just saps happiness out of the country. Canada has carbon tax on fuel and nat gas let's see how popular it is after fuels are expensive (covid tax). What's Canadas' carbon (not that it's a problem) emissions per square foot of land vs Germany and Japan....
  24. 2 points
    China has developed Mars space probe . It looks exactly like the U.S. design China's new fighter jets look exactly like the U.S. advanced design. Biden quote of only months ago "Come on man . . . China's not a threat to U.S. "
  25. 2 points
    China has grown by the mendacity of politicians who have sold America down the river for years. The first politician (although it's obvious he is no politician) to actually stand up to China and call them out for their Bullshit? Oh yeah, Trump. No wonder you hate him. Meanwhile your disasters back home multiply by heaps. You must live in mortal fear you're going to get reassigned away from your cushy assignment and have to actually live there again. Meanwhile I wasn't talking about China's economic collapse, but its purposeful insulation and isolation from the world, occurring right now. The CCP never has understood mercantilism and still don't, but they're bound and determined to repeat the mistakes of the past.
  26. 1 point
    Another great video on the reality of actual herd immunity in all of Europe, the clear evidence that masks made no difference anywhere they were used vs. where they are not used in any CV19 statistic. Prof. of immunology at Bern Switzerland. Great interviewer as well. Great term to describe the panicked denial of immunity and its possibility. "immunity deniers" CV19 as a religious cult of a magical virus that believers claim has no viral properties. That the European and Northern US city charts of the pandemic are exactly natural community immunity curves. Shutdowns hardly did a thing Charting a shutdown intensity index against mortality and other pandemic measures shows no effect. The Simpson seasonal flu curves fit perfectly to the Northern outbreaks and the warm climate curves. Because of the wet hot areas have similar behaviors into air conditioned closed spaces like heated closed spaces of the North in Winter they also follow the Northern pattern.
  27. 1 point
    You may not be ‘pro-China’, but you are definitely ‘anti-American’. This needs to be accounted for when reading your posts and comments.
  28. 1 point
    Oh, you mean like signing a binding contract? Granted, you probably have a better legal background than this firms army of international business lawyers, so they likely should have given you a call. Again, I suppose that this ‘fleecing’ you refer to is predominately an American thing...is that accurate? If not, why did you even bother with your second paragraph?
  29. 1 point
    I am not pro-China., I just think that this was, once again, just a person who signed something he shouldn't have. Thinking a owner with 70% stake loves you is outright dumb - that kind of fleecing happens everyday in the US.
  30. 1 point
    I once was a very fast cyclist, I raced and won a few things. Now I'm 10 years older and 25 pounds heavier. My lovely partner is 12 years younger, and still races, so I ride with her yelling at her to slow down on every steep uphill part. Then I stop frequently on the downhills to wait for her to catch up; because experience and weight makes you go down hills much faster. I do want to try steroids... I don't do registered racing anymore...
  31. 1 point
    Have a Google of arterial fiberlation and low testosterone...EyesOpen.
  32. 1 point
    You must be in great shape bicycling in the mountains! I do love to hike in them or would use an electric bike. I was always a slow hiker but have done one fourteener (14,000 ft mountain). Also some shorter ones. The altitude is now getting to be a problem.
  33. 1 point
    I hope you are right about the future! I would like to know more about what you are talking about regarding testosterone therapy. At 75 with atrial fib I doubt that any products are a good idea for me though. I think that fasting actually provides the answer to all the central obesity issues and has many benefits not widely known. I just need to work harder at it. I had scarlet fever as a child and have lived with a heart murmur all my life. Got through the army with it though. No real problems, I was just not as athletic as I could have been. I have a leaky valve that they check it yearly for effectiveness.
  34. 1 point
    Yoshi got one thing right: "at the expense of the USA"! He is still in denial that "the strategic patience of the USA is over"?
  35. 1 point
    WHAT is wrong with you? Are you suffering so much from insecurity issues, you feel a need to opine on every topic on this board? Or is it simply "penis envy"? This board evidently fills a huge and vast void in your life. Constant and never ending posts, not worth the bandwidth you leach. Obviously you are a native Canadian. Always exuding a massive jealousy for anything remotely American. Your constant and never ending obsession with the POTUS, has now eroded to a constant obsession with anything American. Guess what? Donald Trump will win re-election. The United States will continue to be the benchmark, and you and your countrymen will continue to feel in twenty eighth or eighty eighth place. Get over both your Massive TDS and your jealous feelings towards the Greatest Country in the world. Immigration for you is not an option.
  36. 1 point
    Why did you put "American-owned" in the title when it clearly was not. Also no IP theft, the developer sold his rights. "The agreement that was reached called for Saleen to contribute his brand and trademarks." No crime here, just a stupid man who sold out. "Never attribute to malice that which is adequately explained by stupidity"
  37. 1 point
    So agree with the demand comment. Brent is likely to pull WTI in the coming months. Europe fuel requirements are back to around 90% of pre-covid I should add that the effect in the dollar is resulting from the same reason that Brent is rising. The Eurodollar system financing trade and global manufacturing creates dollar balances as economic activity increases, since it funds the working capital increases. Thus the dollar falls for the same reason Brent prices rise. It isn't so much that one causes the other. Part of the reason the dollar had been so strong in recent years was the decline in Eurodollar supply growth with decelerating activity, thus creating a shortage of dollars. This shortage caused a draw on US cash Repo and reserves and the repo crisis of late 2018 and again 2019. Once activity stabilizes rather than accelerating rapidly in the rebound period, the prior condition will return of a liquidity constrained Eurodollar system. I have intended to comment for a while on this forum that the dollar outside of the US, operates like a gold standard via the Eurodollar banking system. Thus the US financial system is the "gold mine" and the Eurodollar banks tap it for cash liquidity. Since the Eurodollar system and the global trade economy are about the same in scale as the US economy, the deflationary aspect of it is imported into the US trade and finance. Particularly when the Eurodollar system is strained and sucks out cash via repos and cash correspondent accts.
  38. 1 point
    The problem with that idea is the Taliban aren't killing those peasants for the good of humanity, they're killing competitors. The cartels did the same thing in South America with the coca growers.
  39. 1 point
    If Diabetes is a primary cause of death via Covid, then the Eastern Asian peoples should be dying left and right like flies as their diabetes rate is several times any other demographic group. OF course fat people have the complications of heart problems which is the actual problem as it appears that Covid creates clots. So in the young, no problem as their arteries are open and pliable, but the old have constricted arteries, and filled with crap. Just an FYI, not that it has much to do with your post but, "fleshing" out the subject of this disease.
  40. 1 point
    I am not in confusion, lost a brother to to diabetes. Have a read below, most people in the medical community are dismissive or simply call things of this nature a black art. The doc below goes directly to metabolic syndrome. https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC3354945/ https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC5075254/
  41. 1 point
    If Biden wins and Demoncrats gain control of both houses we may soon be a virtual dictatorship by your definition. They are very adept at using the levers of power to increase their control. Republicans have been very poor at that because it was never their goal to undermine the American system. If we face a government which seeks to ignore our Constitutional Rights then there will be a rebellion or hundreds of rebellions and many ways and means of opposition. The government will not be allowed to take away our rights without using the legal processes outlined in our Constitution. That requires an overwhelming agreement by the vote of the states passing amendments. https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Constitutional_amendment
  42. 1 point
    Didnt you see Tom's affordable energy chart above? At best were currently in hybrid with the ff as the real range . And the electricity is a bolt on.
  43. 1 point
    Consumerism drives fuel use. End of the day the consumer is further than ever from the raw materials being consumed. As fuels are cheap this is allowed . As prices for fuels rise so does the product price and less is consumed and emissions will drop. It's the real reason we have so many problems but the greenies want to point the finger at the sellers of energy because if you point the finger at consumers your quickly unpopular. Now your helping social causes by being a consumer....that's easier to swallow than being the root of the issue! Ewww indont want to be seen on social media in the same shirt twice! Lol
  44. 1 point
    Even if renewables were 100% of all of electricity, the trugh is that electricity is just 1/5 of all energy consumption A good chunk of natural gas is used for heating spaces more than power generation, and i think the only way to replace that is switching the industries that currently use Oil, like transport fuel to use nat gas a cheaper feedstock, imo using natural gas for burning it is kinda ¿wasteful? For space heating and air conditioner instad of using electricity or hydrogen made from electricity what about using district heating and cooling, with a boiling water reactor, you take the powerplant and remove the building in the back, all of the annoying Steam turbine and alternator and you are left behind with a enormous water heater. Whats more, instead of just using to heat water couple it with steam fired heat pumps, so the city connected to it can have both, hot water and cold water for drinking and for cooling in summer shika-2 was built in 3 years for 1780U$D/KWe, so imagine if we cut up the powerhouse and built it for 600U$D/KW of thermal power. A Single Boiling Water Reactor can make like 4.95 Gigawatts in thermal power, and they have been built in under 3.5 years, without the powerhouse it could be done in like 2 years at worst, with a single ABWR used only for heating and cooling you can give HVAC, cold and hot water to 3 million houses in America, Canada or Australia It wouldn't use much space once you remove the powerhouse and only leave the giant boiler.
  45. 1 point
    Yes, it has a middle and upper class to which appx 300 mil people belong, What about the other 1 billion+ ? The 76% who don't make it into high school? The 2/3 of the 30% of high school grads that go on to cram school college that provides them less than an online self directed study does? That only 1 in 10 grads of STEM are actually capable of doing what their diploma attests, as per US recruiters in China? China is a 1st world Shanghai Beijing and Guangdong/HK who have colonized their neighboring states into a Chinese empire and have lived off of this indentured population for decades. The migrant workers in these provinces can't become permanent citizens. When they are unemployed they don't even count in the host province's unemployment rate, and the don't count as unemployed in their home provinces either since they were not working there. On the other hand, China is suffering from imperial overstretch as the burden of the rest of the provinces has become too great for the 3 leading regions to support.
  46. 1 point
    Its fact that Russia has over a dozen million Muslims and generally fought against Islamic fanatics in Chechnya, therefore Islamic fanatics in Afghanistan is not very good idea for them. However I dont agree because the Taliban, with all their fanaticism, fought the production of heroin and other drugs in Afghanistan in a very effective way by simply murdering the peasants producing it. Not that I support such a policy , but the fact is that when the Taliban will take control of all Afghanistan, they will apply a similar policy.
  47. 1 point
    Biden should just cut to the chase and make his son Hunter his VP nomination.
  48. 1 point
    That requirement to back into your parking spot was fist issued by the HSE department of a service company. Obviously they thought this was a significant improvement in safety, had nothing to do with operations, and assumed drivers could only back the vehicle safely when arriving, not departing. Yet again another huge step in safety promulgated by HSE departments trying to justify their existence.
  49. 1 point
    How many of these people would have died regardless of Covid-19?
  50. 1 point
    I attended public school from K-6, Christian private school 7-9, public high school 10 - 12, then university. The level of education at the private -and much more expensive- school was garbage.