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(edited)

5 hours ago, Jeroen Goudswaard said:

IEA

Again Opex or capex?

Link the article please

Edited by Rob Plant

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14 hours ago, Jeroen Goudswaard said:

More and more solutions are being built to stabilize the grid with high percentage of wind/solar. Scotland is case in point. Both battery as well as flywheel solutions are implemented. E.g., the Scottish Green Battery Complex will take out the need for a full gas-fired power plant. TheThe Keith Greener Grid Park does the same with flywheels.

Sadly, they are of little use. The flywheel is required to give the system "inertia" - never mind what that means - but its not designed to do anything more than keep the system stable while back-up generators are switched on. In any case the problem is that when wind dies it does so over a very large area and can be negligible for days (notably in Europe). Building more wind turbines won't do anything and batteries cannot store enough power to make a difference, except to keep the lights on while the previously mentioned backups are switched on and brought up to speed. The point that wind systems will still require conventional backup is now well established, and it is tiresome to keep on going over the same ground. Fossil fuel backup is still required, and that is the end of that. Leave it with you.     

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On 10/13/2022 at 1:33 AM, markslawson said:

Sadly, they are of little use. The flywheel is required to give the system "inertia" - never mind what that means - but its not designed to do anything more than keep the system stable while back-up generators are switched on. In any case the problem is that when wind dies it does so over a very large area and can be negligible for days (notably in Europe). Building more wind turbines won't do anything and batteries cannot store enough power to make a difference, except to keep the lights on while the previously mentioned backups are switched on and brought up to speed. The point that wind systems will still require conventional backup is now well established, and it is tiresome to keep on going over the same ground. Fossil fuel backup is still required, and that is the end of that. Leave it with you.     

But what you say is simply not true. And I'll show you.

There is not a single period in the last 30 years, that over the area of Europe (5000 km N/S and 4000 km W/E) there wasn't wind. Europe is so much bigger than you think.

"Fossil fuel backup is still required, and that is the end of that". Another fully incorrect statement.

Case in Point - Energy storage in H2 is already cheaper. The break-even price of renewably-sourced hydrogen made from wind electricity is now less than €3/kg. A kilogramme of hydrogen contains 39.4 kilowatt hours of energy. So the cost price per kilowatt hour of hydrogen is just over 7.5 Euro cents. (For comparison, the price of energy from natural gas is now sold at 15-30 Euro ct/kWh).

 

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On 10/17/2022 at 6:15 PM, Jeroen Goudswaard said:

ut what you say is simply not true. And I'll show you.

There is not a single period in the last 30 years, that over the area of Europe (5000 km N/S and 4000 km W/E) there wasn't wind. Europe is so much bigger than you think.

Jeroen - it was correct, and I'm horrified that you don't know about this problem.. I'll give you two terms.. "wind droughts" and "dunkelflaute" (a German word meaning dark doledrums or dark lull.) These terms are becoming increasingly common.. wind droughts are discussed here but there is considerably more more material if you look. Also, look  up dunkelflaute, but if you can't be bothered here is a youtube video which goes into some detail on the issue. In any case, go and look at your attempt at refutation claiming that there must be some wind somewhere.. Of course there might but you're talking about powering a whole continent by wind from one sector. Jeroen, after this I'm going to give up responding on this topic. I would urge you to come to the next topic better informed. Leave it with you.

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5 hours ago, markslawson said:

Jeroen - it was correct, and I'm horrified that you don't know about this problem.. I'll give you two terms.. "wind droughts" and "dunkelflaute" (a German word meaning dark doledrums or dark lull.) These terms are becoming increasingly common.. wind droughts are discussed here but there is considerably more more material if you look. Also, look  up dunkelflaute, but if you can't be bothered here is a youtube video which goes into some detail on the issue. In any case, go and look at your attempt at refutation claiming that there must be some wind somewhere.. Of course there might but you're talking about powering a whole continent by wind from one sector. Jeroen, after this I'm going to give up responding on this topic. I would urge you to come to the next topic better informed. Leave it with you.

I live in Europe: don't you think I know what a dunkelflaute is?

Both dunkelflautes and wind droughts are not increasingly common. No idea where you get your data from. Clearly not from statistics, maybe from a FF supported website?

https://climate.copernicus.eu/ 

* There has been a general trend towards less cloud cover over Europe during the last four decades.

* There has been no trend in wind speed variation over Europe during the last four decaded.

Anyway, you can take a horse to water, but you can't make it drink.

 

 

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On 10/17/2022 at 8:15 AM, Jeroen Goudswaard said:

But what you say is simply not true. And I'll show you.

There is not a single period in the last 30 years, that over the area of Europe (5000 km N/S and 4000 km W/E) there wasn't wind. Europe is so much bigger than you think.

"Fossil fuel backup is still required, and that is the end of that". Another fully incorrect statement.

Case in Point - Energy storage in H2 is already cheaper. The break-even price of renewably-sourced hydrogen made from wind electricity is now less than €3/kg. A kilogramme of hydrogen contains 39.4 kilowatt hours of energy. So the cost price per kilowatt hour of hydrogen is just over 7.5 Euro cents. (For comparison, the price of energy from natural gas is now sold at 15-30 Euro ct/kWh).

 

Its all supported here if you look at the archives for daily wind output. I haven't seen wind drop below 7% of Europes (All interconnected Europe bar Potatostan & Ruzzia) total electricity output on any given day. Most days its in double figures and at times exceeding 20% of total supply. This is an underestimate because it only includes metered wind and doesn't take account of embedded systems. 

Daily Wind Power Numbers Archive | WindEurope

Last 4 days 14.6, 19.5, 22.9, 21%

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10 hours ago, markslawson said:

Jeroen - it was correct, and I'm horrified that you don't know about this problem.. I'll give you two terms.. "wind droughts" and "dunkelflaute" (a German word meaning dark doledrums or dark lull.) These terms are becoming increasingly common.. wind droughts are discussed here but there is considerably more more material if you look. Also, look  up dunkelflaute, but if you can't be bothered here is a youtube video which goes into some detail on the issue. In any case, go and look at your attempt at refutation claiming that there must be some wind somewhere.. Of course there might but you're talking about powering a whole continent by wind from one sector. Jeroen, after this I'm going to give up responding on this topic. I would urge you to come to the next topic better informed. Leave it with you.

Try finding this 'dunkelflaute' from a Europe wide perspective in the archive data.

Daily Wind Power Numbers Archive | WindEurope

 

 

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On 9/3/2022 at 1:35 PM, specinho said:

not too sure if one of the latest assumption is correct but fusion takes up much repelling energy and forming bonds need energy. Hence, the activity on the sun is probably a cyclical fusion-fission instead.......... ?

The "repelling" you're speaking of causes a build in potential energy when the particles are put under high pressure. At lower pressures, the forces are actually, normally, net attractive. 

Anyways, that potential energy is eventually converted to heat upon the formation of the bonds. 

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12 hours ago, NickW said:

Try finding this 'dunkelflaute' from a Europe wide perspective in the archive data.

Daily Wind Power Numbers Archive | WindEurope

 

Nick - this sort of misdirection doesn't help. Look at the material I quoted. Everyone but you agrees that the problem exists, caused by high pressure systems. As the presenter in the second link notes there is also the problem of a dunkelflaute occurring during winter, when they are more common. Everyone is using their heaters and there is no wind or sun. Anyway, if you just want to deny that's up to you. Leave it with you. 

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19 hours ago, Jeroen Goudswaard said:

I live in Europe: don't you think I know what a dunkelflaute is?

Perhaps you may volunteer your personal experiences with this energy debacle. After decommissioning both oil and coal production, I was under the impression the EU replaced energy production with green energy. 

In fact world wide headlines lead with many articles how the EU was leading the world with clean sustainable energy.I am most curious as to where all that infrastructure went? Having followed this poses many questions.

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9 hours ago, markslawson said:

Nick - this sort of misdirection doesn't help. Look at the material I quoted. Everyone but you agrees that the problem exists, caused by high pressure systems. As the presenter in the second link notes there is also the problem of a dunkelflaute occurring during winter, when they are more common. Everyone is using their heaters and there is no wind or sun. Anyway, if you just want to deny that's up to you. Leave it with you. 

 

No isn't - its hard data from Europes wind fleet rather than some geezer surmising on a Youtube video. 

We know 'dunkelflautes' happen but not over the entire continent simultaneously. Europe is extremely well interconnected now. For example the UK has 6GW of connections with mainland Europe, 1.4GW with Norway and 1 GW with Ireland & Ulster.  With Norway they supply us on low wind days and utilise UK power when wind output is higher. 

I would agree that Europe can't rely solely on wind and solar. Fortunately it has a relatively high Hydro capacity, more pump storage is being built. IMO there is a place for Nuclear particularly in the industrial northern economies. There is also a place for CCGT using conventional gas supplemented by biogas and as it develops Hydrogen. Batteries currently offer grid stablisation functions but will increasingly offer short term back up. One potential second life use of EV batteries is banking them in this fashion to provide STOR services. 

There is a justified case for coal fired baseload, particularly since the Ukraine situation but also to diversify supply. 

 

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7 hours ago, Eyes Wide Open said:

Perhaps you may volunteer your personal experiences with this energy debacle. After decommissioning both oil and coal production, I was under the impression the EU replaced energy production with green energy. 

In fact world wide headlines lead with many articles how the EU was leading the world with clean sustainable energy.I am most curious as to where all that infrastructure went? Having followed this poses many questions.

This outlines the whole of Europes energy infrastructure minus Ruzzia and Potatostan. 

You can see how each countries energy fleet is made up and flows of electricity from one country / region to another.

Electricity Maps | Live 24/7 CO₂ emissions of electricity consumption

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9 hours ago, Eyes Wide Open said:

Perhaps you may volunteer your personal experiences with this energy debacle. After decommissioning both oil and coal production, I was under the impression the EU replaced energy production with green energy. 

In fact world wide headlines lead with many articles how the EU was leading the world with clean sustainable energy.I am most curious as to where all that infrastructure went? Having followed this poses many questions.

There is no debacle. Every year, more of the energy in Europe is renewable. The growth of clean sustainable energy is quicker than anticipated. The cost of renewable energy is so low compared to FF, that the renewable energy producers are now looking at windfall taxes.

The underlying assumption you have is that "Europe should be renewable by now, after all that money that was invested". That just underestimates how long it took to introduce oil and gas and how much money we have invested in the past and we are still investing in FF. Even natural gas, although it was a really straightforward replacement for coal, took 30 years to take off properly.

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1 hour ago, Jeroen Goudswaard said:

There is no debacle. Every year, more of the energy in Europe is renewable. The growth of clean sustainable energy is quicker than anticipated. The cost of renewable energy is so low compared to FF, that the renewable energy producers are now looking at windfall taxes.

The underlying assumption you have is that "Europe should be renewable by now, after all that money that was invested". That just underestimates how long it took to introduce oil and gas and how much money we have invested in the past and we are still investing in FF. Even natural gas, although it was a really straightforward replacement for coal, took 30 years to take off properly.

Quite. My Father recalls milk commonly being delivered by horse and cart in London in the 1950's almost a century after oil first started to be exploited. 

 

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10 hours ago, Eyes Wide Open said:

Perhaps you may volunteer your personal experiences with this energy debacle. After decommissioning both oil and coal production, I was under the impression the EU replaced energy production with green energy. 

In fact world wide headlines lead with many articles how the EU was leading the world with clean sustainable energy.I am most curious as to where all that infrastructure went? Having followed this poses many questions.

Renewables in the UK have halved our gas requirements for electricity generation. At present UK gas production is about 50% of our consumption. 

Being wholly reliant on gas (and coal) would have worked well since Feb 22 wouldn't it given that most would have to be imported??

As it stands we are able to support Europe with up to 6GW of electricity, particularly in windy conditions. As I type net exports are about 1.7GW and we aren't burning any coal. I suspect coal is being stockpiled for December - February. 

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(edited)

BlackRock wins contract for big battery in Australia

BlackRock has won a contract to deliver one of the world’s most powerful batteries – the New South Wales Waratah Super Battery in Australia, with an expected total capacity of 850 MW/1,680 MWh.

4-5 years ago a 50MW battery installation was world leading. 

Edited by Boat
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(edited)

On 10/19/2022 at 10:48 PM, KeyboardWarrior said:

The "repelling" you're speaking of causes a build in potential energy when the particles are put under high pressure. At lower pressures, the forces are actually, normally, net attractive. 

Anyways, that potential energy is eventually converted to heat upon the formation of the bonds. 

saw this fascinating image online. Share it here as second reference.

image.png

It looks like lines created by a magnetic bar in the presence of both north and south pole. Could fusion of hydrogen alone create this kind of lines?

image.png.c53d7db2e68f0f637541d9e696f32de9.png

p/s:

someone raises doubt over the validity of this image. Hence, it is merely a reference, not a fact of certainty..

 

 

Edited by specinho
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(edited)

📢   📢   📢   party popper.. party poopper......... party ppoooooooooooooopper.................. 📢  📢  📢

peat sustainable energy.jpg

 

 

it burns easily and forever, right?  :o   😈

 

 

Edited by specinho
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On 9/27/2022 at 9:21 PM, notsonice said:

How is that Special Master working out for you......????

3 strikes and your out???

 

it is you're .......

Looks like Donald has  struck out 3 times in a row in front of his Special Master......

and now he is dragging down every one of the candidates he is backing....

Do you think he should be arrested ???? sure looks like he broke the law ....over and over again with the documents

Lock Her Up was his favorite chant......... Trumps crimes are 1000 times worse

Lock Him Up ....Please chant it as you know he deserves it

Patience little one...... he will face the long arm of the law soon........ and then you can visit him on visiting day.......

not dragging them down.  another lefty that is wrong.

"over and over again"  ... delusions.  Have you mixed your delusions in with your nightmares of his name.  "TRUMP"

Just like all the alt-lefties that said, "just wait, any day now" after 4 years of lefty lies.  when?  you'd say "soon" .. "soon" "any day now"    It'll be January 21, the day after he isn't POTUS.  "Just wait"  lmao.   get help.

What crimes?  There are arguments with the documents, whereas she had no authority.  Zero.  

Do you scream at the moon at night?  Or do you chant "Orange man bad!"  TRUMP TRUMP TRUMP 

Get help, before your last thought on this planet ends up being "TRUMP" as you mumble his name when you are 100+

 

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https://www.activistpost.com/2022/10/increasing-american-opposition-to-green-energy-projects-leads-to-lawsuits-from-locals-fish-and-wildlife-groups.html

Increasing American Opposition to “Green Energy” Projects Leads to Lawsuits from Locals, Fish and Wildlife Groups

By B.N. Frank

Opposition to, complaints about, and lawsuits filed against “green energy” projects – hydrogen, solar, and wind developments as well as “conflict minerals” mining – continues to increase throughout the U.S. including by environmental groups.  Legislation as well as lawsuits are stopping some development.  In fact, last month a lawsuit led to two turbines being demolished in Massachusetts.  Additionally, leaders overseas are warning against the Biden Administration’s rush to eliminate fossil fuels in favor of green energy sources.  That alone should worry more Americans.

From Wind-Watch:

Green energy projects face stark environmental, local opposition nationwide

International Climate Science Coalition Executive Director Tom Harris discusses how he was once a climate alarmist but now sees it as a scam on ‘The Ingraham Angle.’

 

Green energy development is facing increasing grassroots opposition nationwide over concerns regarding projects’ impact on the environment and local communities.

In recent years, proponents have aggressively pushed clean energy alternatives as part of their broader goal to reach net-zero emissions and transition away from fossil fuel energy in the U.S. and abroad. But wind turbines, solar farms, hydropower projects and critical mineral production – all key parts of the clean energy push – have all faced resistance in the form of environmental lawsuits, legal petitions and local movements.

Shortly after taking office, President Biden announced a lofty goal of achieving 50% emissions reduction by 2030 and a carbon-free electric grid by 2035. Just 18% of U.S. electricity generation came from wind, solar and hydropower in 2021. Another 2% came from other renewable sources.

“Across the country, we’re really running into these permitting and social acceptance challenges with a lot of these technologies,” Rich Powell, the CEO of clean energy advocacy group ClearPath, told Fox News Digital in an interview.

“We’ve given people a lot of ways to stop things in this country,” he continued. “So, given that that’s the situation that folks are going to have to build in, I think we just have to be really realistic about what can be built.”

In July, ClearPath released a report that highlighted growing opposition to wind energy in Iowa, which has the largest wind production of any state. About half of potential wind development areas in Iowa have been ruled out for future projects as a result of moratoria passed by counties.

The opposition to wind in Iowa is representative of issues facing wind development across the country where up to 17 times more wind deployment is required to meet U.S. net-zero emission goals.

“Our organization really wants to focus on how we go through this transition and deliberately do it in a way that does not unnecessarily impact bird populations,” said Lewis Grove, the director of wind and energy at the American Bird Conservancy, a national wild bird conservation group.

“Wind turbines – they’re big and they move and they’re up in the sky, obviously,” he told Fox News Digital. “Collisions with birds are a real concern.”

The American Bird Conservancy, which predicts there will be 1.4 million annual turbine-caused bird deaths by 2030, has filed numerous lawsuits opposing wind projects and has advocated for stricter siting laws for wind developers. Grove said while the group was committed to promoting climate change solutions, it would continue using litigation as a last resort in cases where wind projects present a major threat to a local bird species.

Similarly, local fishing industry and wildlife groups have filed multiple lawsuits opposing offshore wind development. In August 2021, a group of “environmentally-concerned citizens” filed a lawsuit opposing wind development off the coast of New England over concerns it would reduce endangered whale species and fishing groups filed their own lawsuits opposing projects in Massachusetts and New York.

“Offshore wind is by far the most expensive way to get zero-emission electricity and is probably the most environmentally damaging way to do so,” Dave Stevenson, the director of the Center for Energy Competitiveness at the Delaware-based free market think Caesar Rodney Institute. “It just is the worst option we could come up with.”

Stevenson filed comments with the Department of the Interior last month in opposition of an offshore Maryland wind project proposal. He said more than 1,400 individuals had approached the Caesar Rodney Institute with concerns over turbine impacts on the environment and local industry.

Major industrial solar projects, like offshore and onshore wind development, has also experienced an uptick in local pushback.

In 2019, Washington D.C.-based political strategist Susan Ralston founded Citizens for Responsible Solar, a group dedicated to equipping local solar opposition efforts with resources and information. She started the group after successfully defeating an effort in her hometown of Culpeper, Virginia, blocking construction of a proposed 1,600-acre solar park.

“We raised money, we launched a traditional grassroots campaign, we did polling, signs and flyers, attended events, did a petition, videos, got people really active in going to the meetings talking with our planning commission,” Ralston told Fox News Digital in an interview.

Ralston said she was motivated to start the group because many rural communities across the country are unprepared when a major energy developer proposes a solar project in their county. She said companies will also approach a local government with promises, but under-deliver while taking agriculture land out of production and destroying the environment in the process.

“How do they stand a chance against a national major utility or energy company coming in and trying to buy up their land? It’s very difficult,” she continued.

Fawn_Lake_Spotsylvania_County_VA.png

“There are plenty of examples where they take productive cropland out of farming production and then they masquerade these projects,” Ralston said. “Not only is it not available for growing crops anymore, but now you’ve endangered the environment because of stormwater erosion and you’re cutting down trees. If your goal is to help with the reduction of CO2 in the atmosphere, cutting down trees isn’t green.”

Overall, nearly 60 local municipalities nationwide have proposed moratoria on new solar development since last year, according to an NBC News report. The Solar Energy Industries Association, the nation’s largest solar interest group, highlighted such restrictions as an impediment to future industry growth.

And grassroots efforts against hydropower dams and lithium mining have taken shape in the West.

“Hydropower is a green energy scam,” Gary Wockner, the executive director of Save the Colorado, told Fox News Digital. “It is one of the dirtiest and environmentally-negative forms of energy that we can use to create electricity.”

Save the Colorado was formed in 2015 to advocate for the protection and restoration of the Colorado River. As part of the group’s work, it often opposes hydropower dams, which it argues have negative impacts on waterways, wildlife and have large carbon footprints.

In March, Save the Colorado organized a coalition of more than 130 environmental groups including Earthjustice, the Center for Biological Diversity and the Sierra Club, to sign a legal petition urging the Environmental Protection Agency to be more transparent about hydropower projects’ environmental and emissions profile.

“There’s all sorts of negative impacts to rivers, to fish, to the habitat, and to the forests along rivers,” Wockner added. “The science about this has become increasingly well known in the last 20 years, especially the last 10 years, as reservoirs, and especially hydropower, can create significant greenhouse gas emissions. They can be just as dirty in some cases as a coal-fired power plant.”

In addition, Nevada, Minnesota, Alaska and other mineral-rich states have seen increasingly high-profile fights over critical mineral production.

Minerals such as lithium, cobalt, copper and nickel are vital for both clean energy and defense technologies, but are largely mined and refined abroad. Lithium mining in particular has received increased attention recently due to its importance for electric vehicle battery production.

“The only thing green about this project is the money that the corporation wants to make,” said Max Wilbert, co-founder of Protect Thacker Pass, a group opposing a massive proposed lithium mine in Nevada.

“Billions of dollars are at stake here in this one mine,” he continued. “And, more broadly, with the energy transition in general, we’re talking trillions of dollars. That is a very powerful force.”

The firm Lithium Americas proposed to mine lithium at the site years ago, but has yet to produce any due to pushback from environmentalists like Wilbert and ongoing lawsuits challenging the federal government’s approval of permits.

Wilbert criticized the environmental movement for what he said is the false promise that the U.S. can maintain its level of energy use with carbon-free alternatives.

“If we want our children to have a future, we need to change course,” he told Fox News Digital. The Thacker Pass lithium mine represents this bright green lie that we can have this high energy, highly-consumptive society and have a sustainable world at the same time.”

“That’s just not true.”

Source:  Published October 13, 2022 | By Thomas Catenacci | Fox News | foxnews.com

This article is the work of the source indicated. Any opinions expressed in it are not necessarily those of National Wind Watch.

The copyright of this article resides with the author or publisher indicated. As part of its noncommercial effort to present the environmental, social, scientific, and economic issues of large-scale wind power development to a global audience seeking such information, National Wind Watch endeavors to observe “fair use” as provided for in section 107 of U.S. Copyright Law and similar “fair dealing” provisions of the copyright laws of other nations. Send requests to excerpt, general inquiries, and comments via e-mail.


Activist Post reports regularly about green energy projects and unsafe technology.  For more information, visit our archives.

 

 

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On 10/17/2022 at 2:15 AM, Jeroen Goudswaard said:

But what you say is simply not true. And I'll show you.

There is not a single period in the last 30 years, that over the area of Europe (5000 km N/S and 4000 km W/E) there wasn't wind. Europe is so much bigger than you think.

"Fossil fuel backup is still required, and that is the end of that". Another fully incorrect statement.

Case in Point - Energy storage in H2 is already cheaper. The break-even price of renewably-sourced hydrogen made from wind electricity is now less than €3/kg. A kilogramme of hydrogen contains 39.4 kilowatt hours of energy. So the cost price per kilowatt hour of hydrogen is just over 7.5 Euro cents. (For comparison, the price of energy from natural gas is now sold at 15-30 Euro ct/kWh).

 

So where is that hydrogen and how much is there to buy. Natural gas and LNG are temporarily high because of the Russian war on Ukraine. Ukraine will be producing piped natural gas as will Europe itself. So will most of the rest of the world. Hydrogen production cannot compete on price when fully examined. 

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12 hours ago, Ron Wagner said:

So where is that hydrogen and how much is there to buy. Natural gas and LNG are temporarily high because of the Russian war on Ukraine. Ukraine will be producing piped natural gas as will Europe itself. So will most of the rest of the world. Hydrogen production cannot compete on price when fully examined. 

Hi Ron

Check this company out who are based in California!

Sounds very intersting technology and economical as well.

https://www.sgh2energy.com/economics#:~:text=Blue hydrogen —produced from natural,per kg %2C depending on availability.

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On 10/20/2022 at 1:57 PM, specinho said:

📢   📢   📢   party popper.. party poopper......... party ppoooooooooooooopper.................. 📢  📢  📢

peat sustainable energy.jpg

 

 

it burns easily and forever, right?  :o   😈

 

 

Probably worse than brown coal but Ukraine must have plenty. It would make better sense than burning corn kernels that they can sell. I once had a corn stove. They desperately need heat sources. They would need to dry the peat. They could certainly build a lot of stoves or main heat boilers and heat water for radiators. I would like to know their planned heating solutions. They may also need to huddle together near shared heating. All thanks to the Russian invaders targeting civilian infrastructure. 

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12 hours ago, Ron Wagner said:

Probably worse than brown coal but Ukraine must have plenty. It would make better sense than burning corn kernels that they can sell. I once had a corn stove. They desperately need heat sources. They would need to dry the peat. They could certainly build a lot of stoves or main heat boilers and heat water for radiators. I would like to know their planned heating solutions. They may also need to huddle together near shared heating. All thanks to the Russian invaders targeting civilian infrastructure. 

not so sure about brown coal but soil from peat swamp could be similar to powdered coal but with much active organic matter and inorganic mineral. They are usually on drier form, ready to burn, so to say, with probably methane in it............

Ukraine receives 700B remittance, 3 times its GDP, according to World Bank data. Besides that, there are loans from IMF, WB allocation, UN humanitarian aids, private fund etc...... The country has plenty to buy fuel to keep the people warmth or transport them to somewhere with heating facilities and food. But the leader is probably too occupied to appear on TV daily from the media company he owns; to use those money in buying more arms that have missing parts, that back fired onto structures in own country, that they might have no use of with the retreat of Russian armies, except on their own kind within their own border...........

Not sure if I understood correctly about this news

..................  An investigation did by a Dutch company found out that a team of (assumed) Ukrainians used merely memory stick to overwrite missile launching command in Russia....... Loopholes used, they said, misdirecting the impression......

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